A description of a build task. The result of a derivation is a store object. Derivations are typically specified in Nix expressions using the
derivationprimitive. These are translated into low-level store derivations (implicitly by
nix-build, or explicitly by
nix show-derivation(experimental) for displaying the contents of store derivations.
The location in the file system where store objects live. Typically
From the perspective of the location where Nix is invoked, the Nix store can be referred to as a "local" or a "remote" one:
A local store exists on the filesystem of the machine where Nix is invoked. You can use other local stores by passing the
--storeflag to the
nixcommand. Local stores can be used for building derivations.
A remote store exists anywhere other than the local filesystem. One example is the
/nix/storedirectory on another machine, accessed via
sshor served by the
A local store whose canonical path is anything other than
A binary cache is a Nix store which uses a different format: its metadata and signatures are kept in
.narinfofiles rather than in a Nix database. This different format simplifies serving store objects over the network, but cannot host builds. Examples of binary caches include S3 buckets and the NixOS binary cache.
A file that is an immediate child of the Nix store directory. These can be regular files, but also entire directory trees. Store objects can be sources (objects copied from outside of the store), derivation outputs (objects produced by running a build task), or derivations (files describing a build task).
A substitute is a command invocation stored in the Nix database that describes how to build a store object, bypassing the normal build mechanism (i.e., derivations). Typically, the substitute builds the store object by downloading a pre-built version of the store object from some server.
The assumption that equal Nix derivations when run always produce the same output. This cannot be guaranteed in general (e.g., a builder can rely on external inputs such as the network or the system time) but the Nix model assumes it.
A high-level description of software packages and compositions thereof. Deploying software using Nix entails writing Nix expressions for your packages. Nix expressions are translated to derivations that are stored in the Nix store. These derivations can then be built.
A store path
Pis said to have a reference to a store path
Qif the store object at
Pcontains the path
Qsomewhere. The references of a store path are the set of store paths to which it has a reference.
A derivation can reference other derivations and sources (but not output paths), whereas an output path only references other output paths.
A store path
Qis reachable from another store path
Qis in the closure of the references relation.
The closure of a store path is the set of store paths that are directly or indirectly “reachable” from that store path; that is, it’s the closure of the path under the references relation. For a package, the closure of its derivation is equivalent to the build-time dependencies, while the closure of its output path is equivalent to its runtime dependencies. For correct deployment it is necessary to deploy whole closures, since otherwise at runtime files could be missing. The command
nix-store -qRprints out closures of store paths.
As an example, if the store object at path
Pcontains a reference to path
Qis in the closure of
P. Further, if
Ris also in the closure of
The deriver of an output path is the store derivation that built it.
A store path is considered valid if it exists in the file system, is listed in the Nix database as being valid, and if all paths in its closure are also valid.
An automatically generated store object that consists of a set of symlinks to “active” applications, i.e., other store paths. These are generated automatically by
nix-env. See profiles.
A symlink to the current user environment of a user, e.g.,
A Nix ARchive. This is a serialisation of a path in the Nix store. It can contain regular files, directories and symbolic links. NARs are generated and unpacked using
The empty set symbol. In the context of profile history, this denotes a package is not present in a particular version of the profile.
The epsilon symbol. In the context of a package, this means the version is empty. More precisely, the derivation does not have a version attribute.
See String interpolation for details.