Release 0.11 (2007-12-31)
Nix 0.11 has many improvements over the previous stable release. The most important improvement is secure multi-user support. It also features many usability enhancements and language extensions, many of them prompted by NixOS, the purely functional Linux distribution based on Nix. Here is an (incomplete) list:
Secure multi-user support. A single Nix store can now be shared between multiple (possible untrusted) users. This is an important feature for NixOS, where it allows non-root users to install software. The old setuid method for sharing a store between multiple users has been removed. Details for setting up a multi-user store can be found in the manual.
The new command
nix-copy-closuregives you an easy and efficient way to exchange software between machines. It copies the missing parts of the closure of a set of store path to or from a remote machine via
A new kind of string literal: strings between double single-quotes (
'') have indentation “intelligently” removed. This allows large strings (such as shell scripts or configuration file fragments in NixOS) to cleanly follow the indentation of the surrounding expression. It also requires much less escaping, since
''is less common in most languages than
--setmodifies the current generation of a profile so that it contains exactly the specified derivation, and nothing else. For example,
nix-env -p /nix/var/nix/profiles/browser --set firefoxlets the profile named
browsercontain just Firefox.
nix-envnow maintains meta-information about installed packages in profiles. The meta-information is the contents of the
metaattribute of derivations, such as
homepage. The command
nix-env -q --xml --metashows all meta-information.
nix-envnow uses the
meta.priorityattribute of derivations to resolve filename collisions between packages. Lower priority values denote a higher priority. For instance, the GCC wrapper package and the Binutils package in Nixpkgs both have a file
bin/ld, so previously if you tried to install both you would get a collision. Now, on the other hand, the GCC wrapper declares a higher priority than Binutils, so the former’s
bin/ldis symlinked in the user environment.
nix-env -i / -u: instead of breaking package ties by version, break them by priority and version number. That is, if there are multiple packages with the same name, then pick the package with the highest priority, and only use the version if there are multiple packages with the same priority.
This makes it possible to mark specific versions/variant in Nixpkgs more or less desirable than others. A typical example would be a beta version of some package (e.g.,
gcc-4.2.0rc1) which should not be installed even though it is the highest version, except when it is explicitly selected (e.g.,
nix-env -i gcc-4.2.0rc1).
nix-env --set-flagallows meta attributes of installed packages to be modified. There are several attributes that can be usefully modified, because they affect the behaviour of
nix-envor the user environment build script:
meta.prioritycan be changed to resolve filename clashes (see above).
meta.keepcan be set to
trueto prevent the package from being upgraded or replaced. Useful if you want to hang on to an older version of a package.
meta.activecan be set to
falseto “disable” the package. That is, no symlinks will be generated to the files of the package, but it remains part of the profile (so it won’t be garbage-collected). Set it back to
trueto re-enable the package.
nix-env -qnow has a flag
-b) that causes
nix-envto show only those derivations whose output is already in the Nix store or that can be substituted (i.e., downloaded from somewhere). In other words, it shows the packages that can be installed “quickly”, i.e., don’t need to be built from source. The
-bflag is also available in
nix-env -uto filter out derivations for which no pre-built binary is available.
The new option
nix-build) is like
--arg, except that the value is a string. For example,
--argstr system i686-linuxis equivalent to
--arg system "i686-linux"(note that
--argstrprevents annoying quoting around shell arguments).
nix-storehas a new operation
pathsthat shows the build log of the given paths.
Nix now uses Berkeley DB 4.5. The database is upgraded automatically, but you should be careful not to use old versions of Nix that still use Berkeley DB 4.4.
--max-silent-time(corresponding to the configuration setting
build-max-silent-time) allows you to set a timeout on builds — if a build produces no output on
stderrfor the given number of seconds, it is terminated. This is useful for recovering automatically from builds that are stuck in an infinite loop.
nix-channel: each subscribed channel is its own attribute in the top-level expression generated for the channel. This allows disambiguation (e.g.
nix-env -i -A nixpkgs_unstable.firefox).
The substitutes table has been removed from the database. This makes operations such as
nix-channel --updatemuch, much faster.
nix-pullnow supports bzip2-compressed manifests. This speeds up channels.
nix-prefetch-urlnow has a limited form of caching. This is used by
nix-channelto prevent unnecessary downloads when the channel hasn’t changed.
nix-prefetch-urlnow by default computes the SHA-256 hash of the file instead of the MD5 hash. In calls to
fetchurlyou should pass the
sha256attribute instead of
md5. You can pass either a hexadecimal or a base-32 encoding of the hash.
Nix can now perform builds in an automatically generated “chroot”. This prevents a builder from accessing stuff outside of the Nix store, and thus helps ensure purity. This is an experimental feature.
The new command
nix-store --optimisereduces Nix store disk space usage by finding identical files in the store and hard-linking them to each other. It typically reduces the size of the store by something like 25-35%.
~/.nix-defexprcan now be a directory, in which case the Nix expressions in that directory are combined into an attribute set, with the file names used as the names of the attributes. The command
nix-env --import(which set the
~/.nix-defexprsymlink) is removed.
Derivations can specify the new special attribute
allowedReferencesto enforce that the references in the output of a derivation are a subset of a declared set of paths. For example, if
allowedReferencesis an empty list, then the output must not have any references. This is used in NixOS to check that generated files such as initial ramdisks for booting Linux don’t have any dependencies.
The new attribute
exportReferencesGraphallows builders access to the references graph of their inputs. This is used in NixOS for tasks such as generating ISO-9660 images that contain a Nix store populated with the closure of certain paths.
Fixed-output derivations (like
fetchurl) can define the attribute
impureEnvVarsto allow external environment variables to be passed to builders. This is used in Nixpkgs to support proxy configuration, among other things.
Several new built-in functions: